Harvard Bibliography Et Al Candles

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Title:
A Geometric Determination of the Distance to the Galactic Center
Authors:
Eisenhauer, F.; Schödel, R.; Genzel, R.; Ott, T.; Tecza, M.; Abuter, R.; Eckart, A.; Alexander, T.
Affiliation:
AA(Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse Postfach 1312, Garching bei München, Germany ), AB(Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse Postfach 1312, Garching bei München, Germany ), AC(Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse Postfach 1312, Garching bei München, Germany; Also at Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, 366 LeConte Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300. ), AD(Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse Postfach 1312, Garching bei München, Germany ), AE(Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse Postfach 1312, Garching bei München, Germany ), AF(Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse Postfach 1312, Garching bei München, Germany ), AG(I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität Köln, Zulpicher Strasse 77, D-50937, Cologne, Germany ), AH(Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, 76100 Rehovot, Israel )
Publication:
The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 597, Issue 2, pp. L121-L124. (ApJL Homepage)
Publication Date:
11/2003
Origin:
UCP
Astronomy Keywords:
Galaxies: Distances and Redshifts, Galaxy: Center, Galaxy: Fundamental Parameters, Galaxy: Structure
DOI:
10.1086/380188
Bibliographic Code:
2003ApJ...597L.121E

Abstract

We report new astrometric and spectroscopic observations of the star S2 orbiting the massive black hole in the Galactic center that were taken at the ESO VLT with the adaptive optics-assisted, near-IR camera NAOS/CONICA and the near-IR integral field spectrometer SPIFFI. We use these data to determine all the orbital parameters of the star with high precision, including the Sun-Galactic center distance, which is a key parameter for calibrating stellar standard candles and an important rung in the extragalactic distance ladder. Our deduced value of R0=7.94+/-0.42 kpc is the most accurate primary distance measurement to the center of the Milky Way and has minimal systematic uncertainties of astrophysical origin. It is in excellent agreement with other recent determinations of R0. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory, Chile.





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Title:
Crab: the standard x-ray candle with all (modern) x-ray satellites
Authors:
Kirsch, M. G.; Briel, U. G.; Burrows, D.; Campana, S.; Cusumano, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Freyberg, M. J.; Guainazzi, M.; Haberl, F.; Jahoda, K.; Kaastra, J.; Kretschmar, P.; Larsson, S.; Lubinski, P.; Mori, K.; Plucinsky, P.; Pollock, A. M.; Rothschild, R.; Sembay, S.; Wilms, J.; Yamamoto, M.
Affiliation:
AA(European Space Agency, ESAC (Spain)), AB(MPE, Germany), AC(Penn State University, USA), AD(Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Italy), AE(IFCAI/CNR, Italy), AF(Astro-E2 Guest Observer Facility, USA), AG(MPE, Germany), AH(European Space Agency, ESAC (Spain)), AI(MPE, Germany), AJ(NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr., USA), AK(SRON, Netherlands), AL(European Space Agency, ESAC (Spain)), AM(Stockholm Observatory (Sweden)), AN(CAMK, Poland and INTEGRAL Science Data Ctr., Switzerland), AO(University of Miyazaki (Japan)), AP(Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics, USA), AQ(European Space Agency, ESAC (Spain)), AR(University of California/San Diego, USA), AS(Leicester Univ., United Kingdom), AT(University of Warwick, United Kingdom), AU(University of Miyazaki (Japan))
Publication:
UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XIV. Edited by Siegmund, Oswald H. W. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5898, pp. 22-33 (2005). (SPIE Homepage)
Publication Date:
08/2005
Origin:
SPIE
DOI:
10.1117/12.616893
Bibliographic Code:
2005SPIE.5898...22K

Abstract

Various X-ray satellites have used the Crab as a standard candle to perform their calibrations in the past. The calibration of XMM-Newton, however, is independent of the Crab nebula, because this object has not been used to adjust spectral calibration issues. In 2004 a number of special observations were performed to measure the spectral parameters and the absolute flux of the Crab with XMM-Newton's EPIC-pn CCD camera. We describe the results of the campaign in detail and compare them with data of four current missions (Integral, Swift, Chandra, RXTE) and numerous previous missions (ROSAT, EXOSAT, Beppo-SAX, ASCA, Ginga, Einstein, Mir-HEXE).





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