Example of lit review at the beginning of an article:
Forbes, C. C., Blanchard, C. M., Mummery, W. K., & Courneya, K. S. (2015, March). Prevalence and correlates of strength exercise among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum, 42(2), 118+. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.sonoma.idm.oclc.org/ps/i.do?p=HRCA&sw=w&u=sonomacsu&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA422059606&asid=27e45873fddc413ac1bebbc129f7649c
Example of a comprehensive review of the literature:
Wilson, J. L. (2016). An exploration of bullying behaviours in nursing: a review of the literature. British Journal Of Nursing, 25(6), 303-306.
For additional examples, see:
Galvan, J., Galvan, Melisa, & ProQuest. (2017). Writing literature reviews: A guide for students of the social and behavioral sciences (Seventh ed.). [Electronic book]
Pan, M., & Lopez, M. (2008). Preparing literature reviews: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (3rd ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Pub. [Q180.55.E9 P36 2008]
If you are tasked with writing a research paper on the field of criminal behavior, there are many areas of study and theories for behavior which you can use as a topic. However, picking criminology research paper topics is still somewhat tricky given the massive amount of data out there. That being said, below is a list of 20 criminology research paper topics which you might find useful when writing your next paper:
- Why the Examination of Criminal Behavior Helps to Handle and Prevent Crimes
- How Criminologists can Reduce Types of Crime with Criminal Behavior
- How Criminologists can Reduce High Levels of Crime Studying Criminal Behavior
- The Validity of the Rational Choice Theory
- Why Rational Choice Theory is Invalid
- The Relationship between Social Disorganization Theory and Social Learning Theory
- How Prison Encourages Social Learning Theory
- The Validity of Social Disorganization Theory
- Why Social Disorganization Theory is Invalid
- The Relationship between Social Control Theory and Social Disorganization Theory
- How Social Control Theory is Influenced by Social Disorganization Theory
- The Validity of Self-Control Theory of Crime
- Why Strain Theory is Invalid
- The Validity of Social Learning Theory
- Why Social Learning Theory is Invalid
- The Scientific Validity of Labeling Theory
- The Influence of Evolutionary Rewards on Violent Crime
- How Mental Illness Encourages Criminal Behavior
- Harmful Brain Chemistry: How the Brain can Increase Crime
- The Biology of Criminal Behavior: Whether or Not it is All in the Genes
Aren’t those interesting criminology research paper topics? Well that’s not all because this great piece of material is also accompanied by the criminology research paper facts and also a guide on this very topic and paper genre. Below you will find an example essay written on one of the topics from that list.
Sample Research Paper: The Validity of Self-Control Theory of Crime
The self-control theory of crime is a criminological theory which focuses on individual self-control as a factor behind the commitment of crimes. This theory suggests that people who weren’t parented for before they reach the age of 8 have less self-control compared to those who were parented well at the same age. However, there are correlations between levels of self-control and the impulse for criminal conduct. Originally this theory was developed by two criminologists but today has been subject to theoretical debate and other empirical literature which has expounded upon the ideas purported in this theory and claimed it to be limited in terms of understanding criminal behavior.
Originally the theory of self-control was an idea stemming from bonding theory. This theory of self-control was based upon the observation of the behavior and age. By 1990 this theory had gained popularity because of its empirical observations. The two theorists behind this idea recorded that self-control was an important factor behind people who commit crimes. Individual’s self-control is something which improves with age but can be influenced by socialization, the loss of control one might say, and changing biology as a result of hormonal development. Additionally, criminal acts might be short-sighted or opportunistic. This theory shares similar attributes to the theory of ego depletion. One which focuses on the idea that people are more highly motivated to satisfy their immediate desires and pleasures around.
This theory can be traced to aspects of self-control from a psychological perspective. It was Freud who established the idea of self-control through the reality principle and the pleasure principle. These two principles referred to the each person’s desires for immediate gratification and the ability of each person to delay that gratification. Individuals have to learn the necessity of delaying gratification, something which they are taught by their parents as they grow up. Part of the reason they must delay gratification was because of the obstacles they face in real life. Somebody wants to immediately have cash or a random purchase have to delay the gratification of that purchase based upon whether or not they have cash in their bank account. They cannot impulsively make a purchase if they don’t have the money now or can acquire the money through illegal means. This is something which is taught by parents and based upon the self-control theory, taught by the age of 8. Those individuals who are not effectively parented and are not taught that they must delay gratification based on the reality of their situation, are significantly more prone to committing certain crimes in order to obtain that gratification. Following these basic principles the idea of self-control refers to the ability of each person to delay immediate gratification in order to reach bigger goals. This can be compared to the idea of a child who wants money for candy but rather than stealing that money and enjoying immediate gratification from the candy, they delay that gratification so that they can stay out of jail and achieve all of their goals they have in mind which might later on lead to a lot of candy.
This theory presents a loss of control and characteristic for criminal behavior something which can be acute or chronic. Acute low self-control means that it is not typical of the individual and it is something which happens only once. This might happen when a child is incredibly hungry and chooses to steal a piece of candy due to the hunger, something which they would not normally do. But chronic low self-control is when an individual participates in such activities regularly, something which becomes a central component to their life. In addition to this, a some supporting theory states that self-control reduces in large groups and in large communities more so than in the individual. This is something colloquially referred to as peer pressure, in which an individual who might normally not exhibit low self-control is influenced by the loss of control of the individuals around them which leads to participation in group criminal activities.
While this theory does have a strong foundation in psychology it is clearly not comprehensive enough to thoroughly understand and mitigate the high risk of criminal behavior. It has been argued that the major weakness to this is the fact that self-control was not defined separately from the tendency to conduct crime. By not doing this individually, the authors suggest that low self-control and a propensity to engage in criminal activities are one and the same.
Culliney, T.W. “Notes On Predatory Behavi Our In Rhinacloa Forticornis (Hemiptera: Miridae )”. Curr. Agri. Res. Jour 2.1 (2014): 01-04. Web.
Hagan, Frank E. Introduction To Criminology. Print.
Kudlac, Christopher S. Fair Or Foul. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger/ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.
Lee, Jason W and Jeffrey C Lee. Sport And Criminal Behavior. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 2009. Print.
Walsh, A and Jonathan Bolen. The Neurobiology Of Criminal Behavior. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2012. Print.
Wasserman, David T and Robert Samuel Wachbroit. Genetics And Criminal Behavior. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Print.
Yaffe, Gideon. “In Defense Of Criminal Possession”. Criminal Law and Philosophy (2014): n. pag. Web.
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