Essay About Filipino Heroes And Their Pen

Dr. Jose P. Rizal


The Philippines' national hero. Born in Calamba, Laguna, on June 19, 1861. Published his masterpiece Noli Me Tangere in Berlin(Germany) in 1887 and his second novel El Filibusterismo in Ghent(Belgium) in 1891. His two novels stirred the conscience of his people. He contributed various literary works to La Solidaridad. For his leadership in the reform movement and for his incendiary novels, Rizal was arrested and later killed by musketry in Bagumbayan, Manila, on December 30, 1896. His execution was the last straw for other Filipinos who called for a bloody revolution against Spain.

Andres Bonifacio


He founded the secret society, Katipunan, on July 7, 1892, to fight Spain. He was also president of the Tagalog republic from August 24, 1896 to May 10, 1897. Born in Tondo, Manila, on November 30, 1863. He grew up in the slums and never knew the benefits of a prosperous life. He married Gregoria de Jesus in 1892. He was killed on May 10, 1897, near Mount Buntis, Maragondon, Cavite.

General Gregorio del Pilar


Hero of Tirad Pass. Born on November 14, 1875, in Bulacan, Bulacan. Died on December 2, 1899, in the battle of Tirad Pass, to enable Aguinaldo to escape from the Americans. One of the youngest and bravest generals ever produced by the Philippines.

General Emilio Aguinaldo


He officially proclaimed the Philippine independence in Malolos, Bulacan, on January 23, 1899, with him as the first president. It was the first republic in Asia. Born in Kawit, Cavite, on March 22, 1869. Died at the Veterans Memorial Hospital, Quezon City, on February 6, 1964.

Apolinario Mabini


Sublime paralytic and the brain of the revolution. Born in Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas, on June 22, 1864. He joined La Liga Filipina in 1892 and Aguinaldo's revolutionary government from June 1898 to May 1899. He was captured by the American forces in December 1899 and deported to Guam in January 1901. He died in Manila on May 13, 1903.


Father Mariano Gomez


                               Three intellectuals who crusaded for
Father Jose Burgos                reform. Father Jose Burgos Killed
(1837-1872)                         by garrote in Bagumbayan, Manila
                                             on February 17, 1872, for allegedly
                                             instigating the Cavite mutiny.

Father Jacinto Zamora

Emilio Jacinto
 Brain of the Katipunan. Born in Trozo, Manila, on December 15, 1875. He joined the Katipunan in 1894 and became Bonifacio's trusted friend and advicer. He wrote the Kartilya ng Katipunan, theprimer of the Katipunan which embodied the teachings of the organization. He founded and edited the Katipunan newspaper; Kalayaan, whose first issue came out in January 1896. Died on April 16, 1899. He was one of the heroic figures in the Phillipine history.

General Antonio Luna
The greates general of the revolution. Younger brother of juan Luna, the famous painter. Editor o La Independencia, whose first issue came out on September 3, 1898. Born in Binon, Manila, on October 29, 1866. He was one of the propagandists in Spain who were working for piliticalreforms in the Philippines. He contributed articles to La Solidaridad. He assassinated in Cabanatuan City, on June 5, 2899.

Melchora Aquino


B etter known as Tandang Sora. Born in Banlat, Kalookan City, on January 6, 1812. She helped the Katipuneros under the leadership of Andres Bonifacio by providing them food, shelter, and other material goods. She is recognized as the Grand Woman of the revolution and the Mother of Balintawak. She died on March 12, 1919.

Graciano Lopez-Jaena


Founder and first editor of the newspaper La Solidaridad, which became the vehicle of expression for Filipino propaganda in Spain. Together wtih Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. Del Pilar, he undertook propaganda campaigns in Spain. Born in Jaro, Iloilo, on December 18, 1856. He died on January 20, 1896, in Barcelona, Spain.

Panday Pira


First Filipino cannon-maker. He forged the cannons which Rajah Sulayman used in defending the Muslim Kingdom of Manila against the Spanish invaders. Born in one of the islands in Southern Philippines in 1483. He died in 1576.

Mariano Ponce


Researcher, historian, bibliographer, propagandist, diplomat, physician, folklorist, and an outstanding reformist. Born in Baliwag, Bulacan, on March 23, 1863. While in Spain, he joined the propaganda movement and became one of the initiators of La Solidaridad, later becoming its managing editor. Died in HongKong on May 23, 1918.

Gregoria de Jesus


One of the brave and patriotic women who played a heroic role in the Philippine revolution. Born in Kalookan City, on May 9, 1875. Wife of Andres Bonifacio and Lakambini of the Katipunan. She actually fought alongside her husband during the revolution, aside from being the custodian of the Katipunan documents. She organized the Katipunan's Women Chapter. She died on March 15, 1943.

Fernando Ma. Guerrero


Musician, journalist, politician, and lawyer. Considered the greatest lyric poet in Spanish. Born in Ermita, Manila, on May 30, 1873. When the revolution broke out, General Antonio Luna invited him to join the editorial staff of La Independencia, the organ of the revolution. Thus, he fought for the Filipino cause with his pen. Died in Manila June 12, 1929.

Felipe Agoncillo


Outstanding diplomat of the Philippine revolution. Born in Taal, Batangas, on May 26, 1859. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo appointed him as Minister Plenipotentiary to the peace conference in Washington and Paris. Died on September 29, 1941, at the Manila Doctor's Hospital.

Juan Luna


A genius of the brush and a patriot of the highest order. Creator of the world-famous painting, SPOLARIUM, which was awarded the gold medal in the Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes in Madrid in 1884. It is also known as the greatest painting of all times. Born in Badoc, Ilocos, Norte, on October 23, 1857. He was closely associated with the Reform Movement, together with Rizal, Lopez-Jaena, Ponce, etc. He died in Hongkong on December 7, 1899.

Rafael Palma


Orator, statesman, scholar, educator, and writer. Born in Tondo, Manila, on October 24, 1874. He was involved in the propaganda campaign against the Spaniards. He cofounded with Gen. Antonio Luna the revolutionary newspaper, La Independencia. Later, he also founded El Nuevo Dia, Cebu's first daily. Died in Manila on May 24, 1939.

Marcelo H. Del Pilar


Political analyst of the Filipino colony in Spain. Born in Kupang, Bulacan, Bulacan, on August 30, 1850. In 1882, he founded the nationalistic newspaper, Diariong Tagalog. In December 1889, he became the editor of La Solidaridad and became the moving spirit behind the propaganda movement. Died on July 4, 1896.

Pedro Paterno


Statesman, poet, writer, and peacemaker. Born in Manila on February 27, 1858. He was the negotiator/mediator of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. He helped prepare the Malolos constitution. Died on April 26, 1911.

Leona Florentino


First poetess of the Philippines. Born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, on April 19, 1849. Her poems were given international recognition at the Exposicion in Madrid in 1887 and in Paris in 1889. Died on October 4, 1884.

Isabelo delos Reyes


Last of the propagandists. Gifted son of Leona Florentino, first poetess of the Philippines. Born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, on July 7, 1864. He aroused the hostility of the friars and government officials when he openly criticized the evils of the Spanish rule and he advocated reforms. He was the founder of the first Philippine labor union, as well as the first independent Filipino Catholic church. Died on October 9, 1938.

Artemio Ricarte


The unconquerable hero of the revolution. Born in Batac, Ilocos Norte, on October 20, 1866. Known as Viborra, he was a gentle public school teacher who became a dashing revolutionary general. Died in the jungles of Sierra Madre on July 31, 1945.

Jose Palma


Poet and soldier. Born in Tondo, Manila, on June 3, 1876. Younger brother of Dr. Rafael Palma. He was a staff member of La Independencia. He wrote Filipinas, a patriotic poem in Spanish, which became the lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem. Died in Manila, on February 12, 1903.

Rajah Lakandola

( -1575)

One of the most illustrious ancient Filipinos. Chief of Tondo, when Legazpi came to Manila in 1571. He became a Christian and took the name of Carlos, after the king of Spain. He made the blood compact with Goiti. He fought alongside the Spaniards against the Chinese pirate, Limahong. Died in 1575.

Rajah Soliman

( -1571)

The last rajah of Manila, noted for his daring and bravery. Nephew of Rajah Lakandola. Of all of the early rulers of Manila, he was feared most by the Spaniards. He was killed on June 3, 1571, in the Battle of Bangkusay.

Leonor Rivera


Cousin and fiancee of Jose Rizal. She was the Maria Clara in Rizal's Noli Me Tangere.

Marcela Mariño Agoncillo


Maker of the first Philippine flag. Born in Taal, Batangas, on June 24, 1859. Married to Felipe Agoncillo. She labored to make the Filipino flag in Hong Kong with the help of Delfina Herbosa de Natividad, a niece of Rizal. Died on May 30, 1946 in Taal, Batangas.

Galicano Apacible

One of the founders of La Solidaridad.

Jose Ma. Panganiban


Avenger of Filipino honor. Born in Mambulao, Camarines Norte, on February 1, 1863. A good friend and co-worker of Rizal. He was Bicolandia's greatest contribution to the historic campaign for reforms, more popularly called the Propaganda Movement. He wrote articles for La Solidaridad, under the pen names Jomapa and J.M.P. Died in Barcelona, Spain, on August 19, 1890.

Diego Silang


He led the revolt of the Ilocanos in opposition to the tribute and abuses of the Spanish officials. Born in Aringay, La Union, on December 16, 1730. The revolt started in Vigan, Ilocos Sur. He was killed by Miguel Vicos, a Spanish mestizo who bore grievances against Diego Silang.

Maria Josefa Gabriela Silang

After the death of Diego Silang on May 28, 1763, the fight was carried on by his wife, MARIA JOSEFA GABRIELA SILANG, and his uncle, Nicolas Cariño. She too lost her life for freedom's sake on September 30, 1763.


(c. 16th century)

Chief of Mactan who led the first successful Filipino armed resistance against Spanish aggression. He fought and killed Magellan in a battle in Mactan, on April 27, 1521.

Francisco Baltazar


More popularly known as Balagtas, he is considered the prince of Tagalog poets. Born in Panginay, Bigaa, Bulacan, on April 2, 1788. He wrote Florante at Laura, a masterpiece of local versification, upholding moral and social values; it served as the basic foundation of the Philippine literature. Died in Orion, Bataan, on February 20, 1862.

Epifanio delos Santos


Lawyer, journalist, historian, philosopher, bibliographer, biographer, painter, poet, musician, literary critic, antique collector, and librarian. Born in Malabon, Rizal, on April 7, 1871. Died on April 28, 1928, in Manila.

Francisco Dagohoy

(c. Mid-18th century)

He led the longest revolt in Bohol against the Spaniards. The immediate cause of the revolt was the refusal of a Jesuit priest to give a Christian burial to Dagohoy's brother. The Spaniards needed 85 years before they were able to suppress the rebellion. It was only in 1829 that they finally succeeded in bringing to end the revolt started by Dagohoy.

Teresa Magbanua


The first woman in Panay to fight in the Philippine revolution. Known as the Visayan Joan of Arc. Born in Pototan, Iloilo, on November 4, 1871. Died in August 1947.

Trinidad Tecson


Mother of Biak-na-Bato. Born in San Miguel, Bulacan, on November 18, 1848. Even though women-members of the Katipunan were exempted from the pact, she participated in Sanduguan(blood compact). She fought fearlessly in 12 bloody battles of the revolution in Bulacan, including the famous Battle of Biak-na-Bato. Later, she became known as The Mother of the Philippine Red Cross. Died on June 28, 1928.

Agueda Esteban

Katipunan member who later married Artemio Ricarte. She commuted from Cavite to Manila to buy saltpeter, lead, and copper which where used to make ammunitions. She also carried secret messages about the planned offensives against the Spanish posts.

Julian Felipe


Composer of the Philippine National Anthem. Born in Cavite City on January 28, 1861. A dedicated music teacher and composer, he was appointed by Aguinaldo as Director of the National Band of the Philippine Republic. Died in Manila on October 2, 1941.

Marina Dizon


Daughter of a Katipunan leader in Cavite, who was one of the Trece Martirez, executed by the Spanish officials in 1896. Born in Trozo, Manila, on July 18, 1875. She joined the Katipunan in July 1893, one of the first women to have done so. She also kept important documents of the Katipunan. Died on October 25, 1950.

General Francisco Makabulos


Leader of the revolt in Tarlac. Born in La Paz, Tarlac, on September 17, 1871. He was the first patriot in Tarlac, who joined the Katipunan. General Aguinaldo appointed him as one of the brigadier generals of the Central Luzon area. He established the Central Executive Committee, which had a constitution called the Constitution of Makabulos. Died in La Paz, Tarlac, on April 30, 1922.

Jose Rizal’s Essays and Articles

© 2013 by Jensen DG. Mañebog

THE NATIONAL HERO Dr. Jose Rizal composed several brilliant writings in his lifetime. These writings awakened the Filipino patriotism and paved the way for Philippine Revolution. Moreover, his writings were living proofs that “The pen is mightier than the sword.” The following are some of his timeless articles:

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Articles in Diariong Tagalog

“El Amor Patrio” (The Love of Country)

This was the first article Rizal wrote in the Spanish soil. Written in the summer of 1882, it was published in Diariong Tagalog in August. He used the pen name “Laong Laan” (ever prepared) as a byline for this article and he sent it to Marcelo H. Del Pilar for Tagalog translation.

Written during the Spanish colonization and reign over the Philippine islands, the article aimed to establish nationalism and patriotism among the natives. Rizal extended his call for the love of country to his fellow compatriots in Spain, for he believed that nationalism should be exercised anywhere a person is. 

“Revista De Madrid” (Review of Madrid)

This article written by Rizal on November 29, 1882 wasunfortunatelyreturned to him because Diariong Tagalog had ceased publications for lack of funds.

Articles in La Solidaridad

“Los Agricultores Filipinos” (The Filipino Farmers)

This essay dated March 25, 1889 was the first article of Rizal published in La Solidaridad. In this writing, he depicted the deplorable conditions of the Filipino farmers in the Philippines, hence the backwardness of the country.

“A La Defensa” (To La Defensa)

This was in response to the anti-Filipino writing by Patricio de la Escosura published by La Defensa on March 30, 1889 issue. Written on April 30, 1889, Rizal’s article refuted the views of Escosura, calling the readers’ attention to the insidious influences of the friars to the country.

“Los Viajes” (Travels)

Published in the La Solidaridad on May 15, 1889, this article tackled the rewards gained by the people who are well-traveled to many places in the world.

“La Verdad Para Todos” (The Truth for All)

This was Rizal’s counter to the Spanish charges that the natives were ignorant and depraved. On May 31, 1889, it was published in the La Solidaridad.

"Vicente Barrantes’ Teatro Tagalo”

The first installment of Rizal’s “Vicente Barrantes” was published in the La Solidaridad on June 15, 1889. In this article, Rizal exposed Barrantes’ lack of knowledge on the Tagalog theatrical art.

“Defensa Del Noli”

The manuscripts of the “Defensa del Noli” was written on June 18, 1889. Rizal sent the article to Marcelo H. Del Pilar, wanting it to be published by the end of that month in the La Solidaridad.

“Verdades  Nuevas”(New Facts/New Truths)

In this article dated July 31, 1889, Rizal replied to the letter of Vicente Belloc Sanchez which was published on July 4, 1889 in ‘La Patria’, a newspaper in Madrid. Rizal addressed Sanchez’s allegation that provision of reforms to the Philippines would devastate the diplomatic rule of the Catholic friars.

“Una Profanacion”(A Desecration/A Profanation)

Published on July 31, 1889, this article mockingly attacked the friars for refusing to give Christian burial to Mariano Herbosa, Rizal’s brother in law, who died of cholera in May 23, 1889. Being the husband of Lucia Rizal (Jose’s sister), Herbosa was denied of burial in the Catholic cemetery by the priests.

“Crueldad” (Cruelty),

Dated August 15, 1889, this was Rizal’s witty defense of Blumentritt from the libelous attacks of his enemies.

“Diferencias” (Differences) 

Published on September 15, 1889, this article countered the biased article entitled “Old Truths” which was printed in La Patria on August 14, 1889. “Old Truths” ridiculed those Filipinos who asked for reforms.

“Inconsequencias” (Inconsequences)

The Spanish Pablo Mir Deas attacked Antonio Luna in the Barcelona newspaper “El Pueblo Soberano”. As Rizal’s defense of Luna, he wrote this article which was published on November 30, 1889.

“Llanto Y Risas” (Tears and Laughter)

Dated November 30, 1889, this article was a condemnation of the racial prejudice of the Spanish against the brown race. Rizal remembered that he earned first prize in a literary contest in 1880. He narrated nonetheless how the Spaniard and mestizo spectators stopped their applause upon noticing that the winner had a brown skin complexion.

“Filipinas Dentro De Cien Anos” (The Philippines within One Hundred Years)

This was serialized in La Solidaridad on September 30, October 31, December 15, 1889 and February 15, 1890. In the articles, Rizal estimated the future of the Philippines in the span of a hundred years and foretold the catastrophic end of Spanish rule in Asia. He ‘prophesied’ Filipinos’ revolution against Spain, winning their independence, but later the Americans would come as the new colonizer

The essay also talked about the glorious past of the Philippines, recounted the deterioration of the economy, and exposed the causes of natives’ sufferings under the cruel Spanish rule. In the essay, he cautioned the Spain as regards the imminent downfall of its domination. He awakened the minds and the hearts of the Filipinos concerning the oppression of the Spaniards and encouraged them to fight for their right.

Part of the essays reads, “History does not record in its annals any lasting domination by one people over another, of different races, of diverse usages and customs, of opposite and divergent ideas. One of the two had to yield and succumb.” The Philippines had regained its long-awaited democracy and liberty some years after Rizal’s death. This was the realization of what the hero envisioned in this essay.

“Ingratitudes” (Ingratitude)

Dated January 15, 1890, this article was the hero’s reply to Governor General Weyler who told the people in Calamba that they “should not allow themselves to be deceived by the vain promises of their ungrateful sons.” The statement was made as a reaction to Rizal’s project of relocating the oppressed and landless Calamba tenants to North Borneo.

“Sobre La Nueva Ortografia De La Lengua Tagala” (On The New Orthography of The Tagalog Language)

Rizal expressed here his advocacy of a new spelling in Tagalog. In this article dated April 15, 1890, he laid down the rules of the new Tagalog orthography and, with modesty and sincerity, gave the credit for the adoption of this new orthography to Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, author of the celebrated work “El Sanscrito en la Lengua Tagala” (Sanskrit in the Tagalog Language) published in Paris, 1884.

“I put this on record,” wrote Rizal, “so that when the history of this orthography is traced, which is already being adopted by the enlightened Tagalists, that what is Caesar’s be given to Caesar. This innovation is due solely to Dr. Pardo de Tavera’s studies on Tagalismo. I was one of its most zealous propagandists.”

“Sobre La Indolencia De Los Filipinas” (The Indolence of the Filipinos) 

This logical essay is a proof of the national hero’s historical scholarship. The essay rationally countered the accusations by Spaniards that Filipinos were indolent (lazy) during the Spanish reign. It was published in La Solidaridad in five consecutive issues on July (15 and 31), August (1 and 31) and September  1, 1890.

Rizal argued that Filipinos are innately hardworking prior to the rule of the Spaniards. What brought the decrease in the productive activities of the natives was actually the Spanish colonization. Rizal explained the alleged Filipino indolence by pointing to these factors: 1) the Galleon Trade destroyed the previous links of the Philippines with other countries in Asia and the Middle East, thereby eradicating small local businesses and handicraft industries; 2) the Spanish forced labor compelled the Filipinos to work in shipyards, roads, and other public works, thus abandoning their agricultural farms and industries; 3) many Filipinos became landless and wanderers because Spain did not defend them against pirates and foreign invaders; 4) the system of education offered by the colonizers was impractical as it was mainly about repetitive prayers and had nothing to do with agricultural and industrial technology; 5) the Spaniards were a bad example as negligent officials would come in late and leave early in their offices and Spanish women were always followed by servants; 6) gambling like cockfights was established, promoted, and explicitly practiced by Spanish government officials and friars themselves especially during feast days; 7) the crooked system of religion discouraged the natives to work hard by teaching that it is easier for a poor man to enter heaven; and 8) the very high taxes were discouraging as big part of natives’ earnings would only go to the officials and friars.

Moreover, Rizal explained that Filipinos were just wise in their level of work under topical climate. He explained, “violent work is not a good thing in tropical countries as it is would be parallel to death, destruction, annihilation. Rizal concluded that natives’ supposed indolence was an end-product of the Spanish colonization.

Other Rizal’s articles which were also printed in La Solidaridad were “A La Patria” (November 15, 1889), “Sin Nobre”(Without Name) (February 28, 1890), and “Cosas de Filipinas”(Things about the Philippines) (April 30, 1890).

Historical Commentaries Written in London


This historical commentary was written by Rizal in London on December 6, 1888.

“Acerca de Tawalisi de Ibn Batuta”

This historical commentaryis believed to form part of ‘Notes’ (written incollaboration with A.B. Meyer and F. Blumentritt) on a Chinese code in the Middle Ages, translated from the German by Dr. Hirth. Written on January 7, 1889, the article was about the “Tawalisi” which refers to the northern part of Luzon or to any of the adjoining islands.

It was also in London where Rizal penned the following historical commentaries: “La Political Colonial On Filipinas” (Colonial Policy In The Philippines), “Manila En El Mes De Diciembre” (December , 1872), “Historia De La Familia Rizal De Calamba” (History Of The Rizal Family Of Calamba), and“Los Pueblos Del Archipelago Indico (The People’s Of The Indian Archipelago)

Other Writings in London

“La Vision Del Fray Rodriguez” (The Vision of Fray Rodriguez)

Jose Rizal, upon receipt of the news concerning Fray Rodriguez’ bitter attack on his novel Noli Me Tangere, wrote this defense under his pseudonym “Dimas Alang.” Published in Barcelona, it is a satire depicting a spirited dialogue between the Catholic saint Augustine and Rodriguez. Augustine, in the fiction, told Rodriguez that he (Augustine) was commissioned by God to tell him (Rodriguez) of his stupidity and his penance on earth that he (Rodriguez) shall continue to write more stupidity so that all men may laugh at him. In this pamphlet, Rizal demonstrated his profound knowledge in religion and his biting satire.

“To The Young Women of Malolos”

Originally written in Tagalog, this famous essay directly addressed to the women of Malolos, Bulacan was written by Rizal  as a response to Marcelo H. Del Pilar’s request.

Rizal was greatly impressed by the bravery of the 20 young women of Malolos who planned to establish a school where they could learn Spanish despite the opposition of Felipe Garcia, Spanish parish priest of Malolos. The letter expressed Rizal’s yearning that women be granted the same chances given to men in terms of education. In the olden days, young women were not educated because of the principle that they will soon be wives and their primary career would be to take care of the home and children. Rizal however advocated women’s right to education.

            Below are some of the points mentioned by Rizal in his letter to the young women of Malolos: 1) The priests in the country that time did not embody the true spirit of Christianity; 2) Private judgment should be used; 3) Mothers should be an epitome of an ideal woman who teaches her children to love God, country, and fellowmen; 4) Mothers should rear children in the service of the state and set standards of behavior for men around her;5) Filipino women must be noble, decent, and dignified and they should be submissive, tender, and loving to their respective husband; and 6) Young women must edify themselves, live the real Christian way with good morals and manners, and should be intelligent in their choice of a lifetime partner.

Writings in Hong Kong

“Ang Mga Karapatan Ng Tao” (The Rights Of Man)

This was Rizal’s Tagalog translation of “The Rights of Man” which was proclaimed by the French Revolution in 1789.

“A La Nacion Espanola”(To The Spanish Nation)

Written in 1891, this was Rizal’s appeal to Spain to rectify the wrongs which the Spanish government and clergy had done to the Calamba tenants.

“Sa Mga Kababayan” (To My Countrymen)

This writing written in December 1891 explained the Calamba agrarian situation.

“Una Visita A La Victoria Gaol” (A Visit To Victoria Gaol), March 2, 1892

On March 2, 1892,Rizal wrote this account of his visit to the colonial prison of Hong Kong. He contrasted in the article the harsh Spanish prison system with the modern and more humane British prison system.

“Colonisation Du British North Borneo, Par De Familles De Iles Philippines” (Colonization Of British North Borneo By Families From The Philippine Islands)

This was Rizal’s elucidation of his pet North Borneo colonization project.

“Proyecto De Colonization Del British North Borneo Por Los Filipinos” (Project Of The Colonization Of British North Borneo By The Filipinos)

In this writing, Rizal further discussed the ideas he presented in “Colonization of British North Borneo by Families from the Philippine Islands.”

“La Mano Roja” (The Red Hand)

This was a writing printed in sheet form. Written in Hong Kong, the article denounced the frequent outbreaks of fires in Manila.

“Constitution of The La Liga Filipina”

This was deemed the most important writing Rizal had made during his Hong Kong stay. Though it was Jose Ma. Basa who conceived the establishment of Liga Filipina (Philippine League), his friend and namesake Jose Rizal was the one who wrote its constitution and founded it.

Articles for Trubner’s Record

Due to the request of Rizal’s friend Dr. Reinhold Rost, the editor of Trubner’s Record (a journal devoted to Asian Studies), Rizal submitted two articles:

Specimens of Tagal Folklore

Published in May 1889, the article contained Filipino proverbs and puzzles.

Two Eastern Fables(June 1889)

It was a comparative study of the Japanese and Philippine folklore. In this essay, Jose Rizal compared the Filipino fable, “The Tortoise and the Monkey” to the Japanese fable “Saru Kani Kassen” (Battle of the Monkey and the Crab).

Citing many similarities in form and content, Rizal surmised that these two fables may have had the same roots in Malay folklore. This scholarly work received serious attention from other ethnologists, and became a topic at an ethnological conference.

Among other things, Rizal noticed that both versions of the fable tackled about morality as both involve the eternal battle between the weak and the powerful. The Filipino version however had more philosophy and plainness of form whereas the Japanese counterpart had more civilization and diplomacy.

Other Writings

“Pensamientos De Un Filipino” (Reflections of A Filipino)

Jose Rizal wrote this in Madrid, Spain from 1883-1885. It spoke of a liberal minded and anti-friar Filipino who bears penalties such as an exile.

“Por Telefono”

This was a witty satire authored by “Dimas Alang” (one of the hero’s pen names) ridiculing the Catholic monk Font, one of the priests who masterminded the banning of the “Noli”. Published in booklet form in Barcelona, Spain, it narrated in a funny way the telephone conversation between Font and the provincial friar of the San Agustin Convent in Manila. 

This pamphlet showed not only Rizal’s cleverness but also his futuristic vision. Amazingly, Rizal had envisaged that overseas telephonic conversations could be carried on—something which was not yet done during that time (Fall of 1889). It was only in 1901, twelve years after Rizal wrote the “Por Telefono,” when the first radio-telegraph signals were received by Marconi across the Atlantic.

“La Instruccion” (The Town Schools In The Philippines)

Using his penname “Laong Laan”, Rizal assessed in this essay the elementary educational system in the Philippines during his time. Having observed the educational systems in Europe, Rizal found the Spanish-administered education in his country poor and futile. The hero thus proposed reforms and suggeted a more significant and engaging system.

Rizal for instance pointed out that there was a problem in the mandated medium of instruction—the colonizers’ language (Spanish) which was not perfectly understood by the natives. Rizal thus favored Philippine languages for workbooks and instructions.

The visionary (if not prophetic) thinking of Rizal might have been working (again) when he wrote the essay. Interestingly, his call for educational reforms, especially his stand on the use of the local languages for instruction, is part of the battle cry and features of today’s K to 12 program in the Philippines. (© 2013 by Jensen DG. Mañebog)

Jensen DG. Mañebog, the contributor, is a book author and professorial lecturer in the graduate school of a state university in Metro Manila. His unique textbooks and e-books on Rizal (available online)  comprehensively tackle, among others, the respective life of Rizal’s parents, siblings, co-heroes, and girlfriends. (

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Tag: Jose Rizal’s Essays and Articles

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