Essay In Favour Of Reservation

Reservation is a hot topic today. From teachers to politicians, from students to employees, every profession is jolted by the reservation system. India, being a developing country is facing many challenges and presently Reservation System is one of them. Essay on the reservation is vocal many times but without spreading its effect.

Reservation History

Reservation system in India

The system finds its origin soon after Independence. The main objective was to provide increased opportunities, enhanced social and economical status, and well being of the under privileged class popularly known as Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward classes (OBC). Uplifting their lifestyle to make them a part of Indian mainstream society was a very good contemplation to eliminate discrimination. Dr. Ambedkar, at the time of framing constitution, had demanded 10 years for reservation system until the equality is enforced in the society.

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Reservation Impact

But today the meaning of reservation has changed drastically. Reservation in india essay are presented for better understanding but politicians continue to support it for their party’s benefits, students and parents continue to support it for the guarantee of a better college with lesser fees, employees continue to support it for a quicker promotion! The people suffering from reservation system are the one belonging to general category. Students having a better score and eligibility fail to get an admission in a prestigious college as a student with lesser score and a reservation fills that seat. A hard working employee is curtailed from promotion as it’s given to somebody having less qualification but being from a reserved category.

In Higher Education Institutions (IITs, IIMs, AIIMS etc.) and government postings, 22.5% of available seats are reserved for SC and STs, 27% are reserved for OBCs and the remaining 51.5% for general category leading to exasperation among students, medical doctors, government employees and the public in general. India must be the only country where people fight to call themselves as ‘Backward’ as they say!

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Boon or Bane?

Economically and socially we can divide our Indian society in many classes. Among those medium income and upper caste, low income and upper caste are the sections that are suffering the most and remain frustrated about reservation system. It’s a bane for them. They neither have money nor reservation for basic amenities. For high income and lower caste, medium income and lower caste, reservation is a boon. They have all amenities; in fact many lead a luxurious life but still enroll themselves for reservation and make use of its benefits polluting the mere concept of reservation. Low income and lower caste are the ones who actually need it but most of them are either unaware or not bothered to make use of the facility. Essay on reservation in India surely make each and every Indian to understand it better.

Is it required?

Reservation is definitely required but not for the people with lower caste but for the impoverished. Handicap, soldiers’ family, senior citizens, Kashmir migrants, people with very low or no income are the ones who should be supported from their loved society by ensuring a seat reserved for them if they are inclined and adhered to work and study. It should not be enforced based on caste/religion, minority/majority as it is happening now and causing a major hitch in development.

Progress is impossible without changes. It’s time our government should bring in a big change in the reservation system ensuring India’s progress and we being the citizens of India should understand ‘It’s not our right, its just a privilege we are being endowed with’.

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Essay on Reservation Policy in India!

Initially, the percentage of reservation (in 1950 Constitution) provided reservation of 12.5 per cent for the SCs and 5 per cent for the STs but these percentages were subsequently enhanced in 1970 to 15 per cent and 7.5 per cent for SCs and STs respectively. The res­ervation was provided in jobs, admission to colleges and universities, and the central and state legislative assemblies.

Our Constitution guarantees/stipulates justice and equality of opportu­nity to all its citizens. It also recognizes that equal opportunity implies competition between equals, and not ‘un-equals’. Recognizing the inequal­ity in our social structure, the makers of the Constitution argued that weaker sections have to be dealt with on a preferential footing by the state. A special responsibility was, thus, placed upon the state to provide protection to the weaker sections of society.

Accordingly, the Constitu­tion provided for protective discrimination under various articles to accelerate the process of building an egalitarian social order. Thus, prefer­ential treatment for the depressed classes (SCs and STs), including reserva­tion of seats, should not be understood as an act of magnanimity on the part of the political elite at the national level but rather a strategy to give them a share in power in politics and administration and to uplift them socially and economically.

Initially, the percentage of reservation (in 1950 Constitution) provided reservation of 12.5 per cent for the SCs and 5 per cent for the STs but these percentages were subsequently enhanced in 1970 to 15 per cent and 7.5 per cent for SCs and STs respectively. The res­ervation was provided in jobs, admission to colleges and universities, and the central and state legislative assemblies.

Later, it was provided in public undertakings and nationalised banks, etc. All state governments also en­acted laws providing for reservation for the SCs (and STs) in the services under their control. Further, other concessions like reservation in promo­tions, etc. were also provided by the governments.

In January 1999, the President of India’s noting in a confidential file pertaining to judicial appointments to the effect that special quota should be considered for the weaker sections of society like SCs, STs and women in the appointment of judges in High Courts and the Supreme Court, led to a future in legal circles and a debate on meritocracy versus protective discrimination.

The controversy is not about whether the President has constitutional power to suggest changes in the selection process. The issue is: if Chief Justice of India’s argument that merit alone is important in ju­dicial appointments is logical, why cannot it be applied to other areas like educational institutions, science laboratories, etc., and if President’s view has logic, why can’t reservations be extended to armed forces, formation of cabinets, etc. The President’s noting are never casual.

They are not personal opinions. They carry an official stamp. If judges and senior advo­cates believe in the primacy of merit in judiciary, will the Supreme Court review its earlier judgement given in November 1992 with regard to ac­cepting 27 per cent reservation for the OBCs? The failure of the policy of reservation to uplift the SCs (and STs) over a period of around five dec­ades on the one hand and the politics of reservation, i.e., the rat race among the political parties to net specific groups like OBCs, Dalit Chris­tians and the Muslims, and recent demands of some castes (like Jats, etc. in Rajasthan) to include them in OBC category, on the other, have posed se­rious challenges for the society and economy.

The Supreme Court ruling on the ceiling of the reservation limit at 50 per cent and subsequently, the passing of Tamil Nadu Reservation Act (1993) raising the reservation to 69 per cent and including this Act in the constitution by 85th amendment to take it beyond judicial review have opened the door with one state gov­ernment after another rushing through similar kind of legislations. It is in this context that the issue of reservation assumes great importance.

The question now raised by many people is: Should we continue res­ervations for SCs and STs in educational institutions, services, Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabhas? One argument is that these should have been discon­tinued ten years from the coming into force of the Constitution. By extending the term every decade, we are going against the wishes of the Constitution-makers.

It is in fact derecognising merit and depriving the more qualified. The SCs and STs in India together constitute 24.56 per cent (16.48% and 8.08% respectively) of the total population, OBCs 51 per cent, economically weaker sections (destitute) 10 per cent, and Mus­lims 12 per cent. All this adds up to 97.56 per cent. When nearly the whole country is backward, where is the justification for special measures for any particular section of the backwards?

Second argument is that we have tried out the reservation idea to im­prove the lot of the weaker sections for 50 years. If the reservations have really made no difference in their conditions so far, why persist with such an ineffectual arrangement? The reservation benefits are cornered by the creamy layer.

Third argument is that this (reservation) policy is being bartered for vote. There will be no objections if the reservations are provided for un­der the very concept of the equality of opportunity.

On the other hand, one view is that since the object of reservation (for SCs) has not been achieved, it should be continued for a few more decades. The other view is that it is time to phase out reservations slowly. This can be done either by removing the creamy layers or by letting the reservation percentages taper off to a vanishing point. In fact, this process should have been initiated much earlier. It would have indeed been a wonderful idea for our nation to enter the twenty-first century as a casteless society.

Our contention is that theoretically, it is inadmissible and practically difficult to scrap the policy of reservation. We agree with Roy Burman’s view that for some more years, reservation should be extended to SCs, STs and OBCs.

However, the policy of reservation has to be scientific and rational. In the given economic and political structure, caste (or birth or family) should not determine one’s life chances. It is assumed that SCs (and for that matter STs and OBCs also) represent a homogeneous group but actually they are a heterogeneous group.

Therefore, following B.S. Bhargava and Avinash Samal (1998: 518), it may be suggested that:

(i) Not caste but income should be given importance in determining backward­ness;

(ii) The concept of creamy layer should be applied to SCs (and STs) also;

(iii) Reservation should be restricted only to the first generation bene­ficiaries. The candidates whose parents have already availed reservation fa­cilities in securing a job should not be given the facility again;

(iv) Concession of scholarship may be provided to SC (and ST and OBC) stu­dents securing more than the specified percentage of marks (say, 48%) in high school and graduate courses for getting quality education in good in­stitutions. All these measures will benefit those who really deserve help.

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